In some states, the ratio is much higher in California. It is at least one out of four. Accordingly a large number of students are not yet citizens or have parents who are not yet citizens. For these students, questions surrounding the legal status Of citizens and resident aliens are central to their lives, and for all people in the United States, whether they were born here or elsewhere, immigration remains a key public policy issue. Similarly, civic culture both touches students individually and shapes the country in which they live. Readers Of this text will learn how the American tradition of community Service has influenced issues ranging from tax law to welfare reform.
Each chapter roots its topic in the founding principles and draws attention to how those principles unfolded over time. Chapter 5.
American government and politics deliberation democracy and citizensh…
These chapters give special attention to deliberative processes showing how presidents, bureaucrats, lawmakers, and judges reason on the merits of law and public policy. More often than many people acknowledge the decisions of public officials are the product of reasoned judgments about the public interest not simply the result of political pressures. Responsible citizenship requires knowledge of the content of American public policy and the issues at stake in major policy debates. In American deliberative democracy, public opinion about social welfare, economic regulation, and national security both informs and constrains deliberation by the governing institutions.
With public sentiment, nothing can fail without it, nothing can succeed. The study Of American government as a deliberative democracy is a relatively new approach within political science. Until the middle of the twentieth century, political scientists emphasized constitutions and laws when analyzing government. New studies appeared that measured public opinion and voting behavior and linked them to broader theories of American democracy.
Scholars examined why men and women sought to serve in government and how they behaved once they got there. Political scientists especially highlighted the power of organized interest groups in influencing legislators and bureaucrats. Yet some members of the Constitutional Convention seemed to assume that the Supreme Court would have such a power.
Madison in In those days, presidents served for nearly three months after the electoral vote was counted in December, even if they had lost. President Adams used this time to appoint Federalists to the judiciary the so called midnight appointments. One was William Marbury, nominated to serve as a justice of the peace in the District of Columbia.
In the final days of his term,Adams also appointed Marshall to serve as chief justice of the United States. These last minute appointments incensed the incoming Democratic Republicans. Yet, concerned that Adams had attempted to load the judiciary With Federalists, he refused to do so. Marbury then asked the Supreme Court to issue a write Of mandamus a judicial command to a public official to do his or her duty ordering Madison to deliver the commission. Buy Now and Red More. Bessette and John J.
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Which of the following prominent political figures attended the Constitutional Convention? Gouverneur Morris b. John Adams c. Andrew Jackson d. Samuel Adams e. Which three men were most important to the actual drafting of the Constitution? The Virginia Plan was the a. According to the text, what is most striking about the Virginia Plan? It was nearly identical to the Articles of Confederation. It was actually written by the delegates from New Jersey. It advocated absolute executive veto power over state laws. It embraced the British form of government. It completely rejected the state-based Articles of Confederation.
What was the effect of requiring the new constitution to be ratified by popularly elected assemblies? The central government lost much of its power. The new government was sunk more deeply into the people. Several new states were created.
More delegates were required to attend the convention. The Declaration of Independence was overturned. Both gave the national government the power to veto state laws. Both had a true separation of powers system. Both had governing institutions that represented the states rather than the people. Both increased the powers of the national government relative to the Articles of Confederation.
Both were drafted by James Madison. When Alexander Hamilton spoke for the first time at the Constitutional Convention, he told the delegates that he a. How did the Great Compromise appease both the large states and the smaller states? It added land to the smaller states, thereby creating more equality among the states. It allowed each state to choose between the Virginia and New Jersey Plans. It based both houses of the legislature on population. It established state equality in one branch of the legislature and gave the popular house more power over taxing and spending bills.
It increased the power of the state assemblies. The proposal of the Committee of Detail gave the power to regulate interstate and foreign commerce to a. What two goals or principles for the presidency did the delegates struggle to combine in the Constitution?
Independence from the people and reeligibility b. Independence from the legislature and reeligibility c. Independence from the legislature and vetoing laws d.
American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy and Citizenship
Making treaties and vetoing laws e. The Twelfth Amendment requires that the president a. The electoral college is a. What did the delegates hope to achieve in the presidency by removing all limits on presidential reelection? The prospect of reelection would give the president an incentive to do a good job. George Washington would remain president for the remainder of his life. The executive branch would become more powerful than the legislative branch. More people would be encouraged to run for president. The legislature would be encouraged to assume a dominant role in government.
What is key to the nature of Congress as outlined by the Constitution of ? Equal representation of the states b. Representation based on population c. Short term limits d. The bicameral design 9. Members of the House of Representatives are a. The delegates feared that the House of Representatives would a. According to the original Constitution, Senate terms are served for a. What provision for the Senate was designed to promote consistent policies? Only one-third of senators would face reelection every two years. It would have power over taxing and spending bills.
Senators would serve shorter terms than members of the House of Representatives. Senators would be selected by the president.
American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy and Citizenship / Edition 2
All senators would face reelection every two years. Under the original Constitution, members of the Senate were a. Why were federal judges appointed to serve for life? A life term was considered a sign of respect.
They were not especially important to the new government. Qualified men were too scarce to continue finding new judges. A life term insulated them from political pressures. They were considered superior to politicians who had to be held accountable to the public. Why is the American system also called a presidential government?
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The president is supreme over the legislative and judicial branches of government. The president has final veto power over all laws. The president influences the legislature by appointing its members. The president serves the longest term of elected officials. The president is independently elected and cannot be dismissed by the legislature. If the Republican party controls Congress and the president is a Democrat, this is a case of a. What was the Committee of Style? A committee assigned to design the building where Congress would meet b. Delegates who argued that the Constitution should not be written in a formal style c.
Men who engrossed the Constitution d. A committee assigned to give final form to the Constitution e. George Washington proposed that they a. The Constitution requires an oath to be administered each time that a. Congress is recessed. Why did the delegates reject a requirement for unanimous ratification of the Constitution? It would be too time consuming. Rhode Island refused to participate if unanimous ratification was required.
It would be unfair to the majority of states and their people if one state refused to ratify the Constitution. Unanimity was unpopular with the people. Unanimous ratification was not required by the Articles of Confederation. One advantage of the ratification method established by the Constitutional Convention was that it a. The first state to ratify the Constitution was a. New York. Rhode Island. What was a major complaint of the opposition to ratification in many states?
The failure to address slavery b. The large bicameral legislature c. The sole executive d. Life terms of federal judges and short terms of representatives e. Which of the following was a problem posed by the resistance of New York and Virginia to ratification? Most of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention were from these states. Without these two states, the nation would be divided into three separate parts. Both states had close ties to Britain. The Constitution required the participation of at least one of these states.
Which was the last of the thirteen states to ratify the Constitution? Delaware b. New York c. North Carolina d. Rhode Island e. In the debate over ratification, the name given to proponents of ratifying the Constitution was a. The Federalist Papers are a. Who were the three authors of The Federalist Papers? According to the Federalists, which of the following was NOT an object that should be entrusted to the national government? Common defense b. Preservation of peace against external and internal threats c. Regulation of interstate and foreign commerce d.
Conduct of foreign relations e. What was the main reason Anti-Federalists distrusted a standing army? They did not want to use tax money to support it. They did not think it was necessary. A standing army could be used against the people. It was too difficult to regulate command of a standing army.
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What did Madison believe was the main reason a large republic would seldom experience a majority faction? Republican virtue would guard against it. People would be too removed from the government to get involved. Representatives would be better able to control their constituents. A large number and variety of groups within the society would make it difficult to sustain an unjust majority.
States would quell any majority factions before they got out of hand. Under the Constitution, the states were than they had been under the Articles of Confederation. Publius acknowledged that a republican government assumes that the citizenry has a. What is one of the rights enumerated in the original Constitution? Right to a speedy trial b. Right to bear arms c. Freedom of speech d. Pursuit of happiness e. An act of the legislature convicting someone of a crime and imposing a punishment without a trial is called a n a.
A law that makes an action criminal or increases its punishment after the fact is a n a. What is one reason that supporters of the Constitution gave during the ratification debates opposing a bill of rights? A bill of rights would nullify the Constitution. The addition of a bill of rights would be a concession to the Anti-Federalists. Only monarchies should have bills of rights. A bill of rights was not necessary because the national government would have limited powers. The enumeration of rights should be left up to the states.
What event brought about the end of organized opposition to the Constitution? Election of George Washington b. Final ratification of the Constitution c. Adoption of the Bill of Rights d. War of e.
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How did some colonial assemblies attempt to restrict the slave trade? Outright prohibitions b. Imposing heavy import duties on slaves c. Restricting the number of slaves any one person could own d. Religious appeals e. They did not want to admit in the Constitution the idea that men could be property. They did not want to offend pro-slavery activists.