Essentially by blocking the Sun's light. Basically, the blocking effect of the dust partially stopped sunlight reaching Earth and an ice age began.
Earth and Moon Viewer
The arrival of all that space dust happened so gradually—actually over at least two million years—that life was able to adapt to the changing temperatures, leading to an explosion of new species. This is a million-year-old fossil meteorite, created in the same asteroid collision that caused the dust that led to an ice age. Along the top of the photo is the fossil of a squid-like creature called a nautiloid.
They looked for traces of space dust in million year old rocks, and compared it to tiny micrometeorites from Antarctica. They found helium atoms missing a neutron—a sure sign of being shot out of the Sun—as well as rare metals often found in asteroids. In short, the dust from the asteroid was enriched with helium after being bombarded by the solar wind on its way to Earth.
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